1. NICE Guidelines (2016) Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management [NG59].
  2. National Low Back and Radicular Pain Pathway 2017: https://www.ukssb.com/improving-spinal-care-project.
  3. Surgery for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Chau R et al. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 May 1;34(10):1094-109. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a105fc.
  4. Nice Guideline (2016) Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management [NG59] endorse STarT Back resource.
  5. Back Skills Training (BeST): Group cognitive behavioural treatment for low-back pain in primary care: a randomised controlled trial and cost effectiveness analysis. Prof Sarah E Lamb DPhil et al on behalf of the Back Skills Training Trial investigators: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)62164-4.
  6. Evidence for surgery in degenerative lumbar spine disorders. Jacobs WC et al. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2013 Oct;27(5):673-84. doi: 10.1016/j. erh.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Oct 5.
  7. https://choosingwiselycanada.org/spine/.
  8. NICE Clinical guidelines (2014) Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings [CG173].
  9. NICE Published guidance (2011) Transaxial interbody lumbosacral fusion [IPG 387].

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